November Birthstone - Citrine and Topaz

Citrine is the clear yellow or golden form of the mineral quartz. Therefore it is related to amethyst, the purple form of quartz, and to rock crystal, the colourless variety. The colour of citrine is due to small amounts of iron impurities in the crystal structure of quartz, and the difference between citrine and amethyst is only the oxidation state of the iron impurities present in the quartz.

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Most people think of topaz as a transparent golden yellow gemstone. However, this gemstone can be colourless as well as orange-yellow, red, honey-brown (dark sherry), light green, blue and pink. The name topaz is derived from the Greek word meaning "to shine" and also implies "fire". Orange-red "Imperial" topaz and pink colours are rare and most valuable.

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